The terrier as used for hunting is a strong useful little dog, with great endurance and courage, and with nearly as good a nose as the beagle or harrier. From his superior courage when crossed with the bulldog, as most vermin-terriers are, he has generally been kept for killing vermin whose bite would deter the spaniel or the beagle, but would only render the terrier more determined in his pursuit of them. Hence, he is the constant attendant on the rat-catcher, and is highly useful to the gamekeeper, as well as to the farmer who is annoyed with rats and mice. Formerly it was the custom to ad a couple of terriers to every pack of foxhounds, so as to be ready to aid in bolting the fox when he runs into a drain, or goes to ground in an easily accessible earth; the stoutness of the terrier enabling him, by steadily following on the track, to reach the scene of operations before it would be possible to obtain any other assistance. This aid, however, in consequence of the increased speed of our hounds, is now dispensed with, and the old fox-terrier is out of date, or is only kept for the purpose of destroying ground vermin, such as the rat or the weasel, or as a companion to man, for which purpose his fidelity and tractability make him peculiarly fitted. Terriers are now usually divided into four kinds:-1st, The old English Terrier; 2nd, The Scotch (including the Dandie Dinmont); 3rd, The Skye; 4th, the modern Toy dog.
*Lady,” by Frank Redmond’s celebrated dog “Tartar,” out of “Vic,” a Manchester-bred bitch, formerly the property of the Hon. Egremont Lacelles. Her weight is about 6 ½ lbs.
The English Terrier is a smooth-haired dog, weighing from about 6 to 10 lbs. His nose is very long and tapering neatly off the jaw being slightly overhung, with a high forehead, narrow flat skull, strong muscular jaw, and small bright eye, well set in the head; ears when entire are short and slightly raised, but not absolutely pricked, turning over soon after they leave the head. When cropped, they stand up in a point, and rise much higher than they naturally would. The neck is strong, but of good length; body very symmetrical, with powerful short loins, and chest deep rather than wide. Shoulders generally good, and very powerful, so as to enable the terrier to dig away at an earth for hours together without fatigue, but they must not be so wide as to prevent him from ‘going to ground.’ Fore legs straight and strong in muscle, but light in bone, and feet round and hare-like. Hind legs straight but powerful. Tail fine, with a decided down carriage. The colour of these dogs should be black and tan, which is the only true colour, many are white, slightly marked with black, red, or sometimes, but very rarely, blue. The true fox terrier was generally chosen with as much white as possible, so that he might be readily seen either coming up after the pack, or when in the foxes earth, in almost complete darkness; but these were all crossed with bull-dog. Those which are now kept for general purposes are, however, most prized when of the black and tan colour, and the more complete the contrast, that is, the richer the black and tan respectively, the more highly the dog is valued, especially without any white. In most cases there is a small patch of tan over each eye; the nose and palate should always be black. Such is the pure English terrier, a totally different animal from the short, thick muzzled, spaniel-eyed, long-backed, cat-footed, curly-tailed abomination so prevalent in the present day. But he is a rank coward, unless crossed with the bulldog. (For fox-terrier, see Cross-breeds.)
These are the various breeds described under the head of the terrier, but of smaller size than the average, and with great attention paid to their colour and shape. The smooth English terrier, not exceeding 7 lbs. In weight, is much prized; and when he can be obtained of 3 ½ or 4 lbs. In weight, with perfect symmetry, and a good rich black and tan colour without a white hair, he is certainly a very perfect little dog. Most of the Toy terriers now sold are either crossed with the Italian greyhound or with the King Charles spaniel. If the former, the shape is preserved, and there is the greatest possible difficulty in distinguishing this cross from the pure English terrier; indeed, I am much inclined to believe that all our best modern toy terriers are thus bred. They have the beautiful long sharp nose, the narrow forehead, and the small sharp eye, which characterizes the pure breed; but they are seldom good at vermin, though some which I have known to be half Italian have been bold enough to attack a good strong rat as well as most dogs. Many of these half-bred Italians are used for rabbit-coursing, in which there is a limit to weight, but it is chiefly for toy purposes that long prices are obtained for them. When the cross with the spaniel has been restored to, the forehead is high, the nose short, and the eyes large, full and often weeping, while the general form is not so symmetrical and compact; the chest being full enough, but the brisket not so deep as in the true terrier, or in the Italian cross.
The Skye terrier, as used for toy purposes, is often crossed with the spaniel to get silkiness of coat.
Scotch terriers are seldom used as toys, and are not considered such by the fancier of the animal.
* From the personal collection of Jo Ann Emrick “Wilane Manchester Terriers